Te Rangi Hiroa/Peter Henry Buck

Ngāti Mutunga

1880 - 1951



Peter Buck was the son of Ngāti Mutunga kuia Ngarongokitua and Irishman William Henry Neal. He was first called Materori and was then given the name Peter by his father. In his adult years he used two names, "Te Rangi Hiroa" and "Peter Buck", Buck being a nickname given to his father. His mother taught him how to read and write in Māori; after her death he was raised by his grandmother Kapuakore. He attended Urenui Primary School, worked as a farm-hand and from 1896-1898 was a student at Te Aute College. In 1898 he was awarded a medical scholarship and went to the University of Otago Medical School where he graduated in 1904 with M.B. and Ch.B. In 1910 graduated with M.D. From 1905-1908, he served as a Medical Officer of Health for the Māori and in 1909 entered Parliament as Member for Northern Māori. He became a Minister of the Crown in charge of the Cook Islands, Public Trust and Government Life Insurance and Minister representing the Māori. In 1914 he resigned the Northern Māori seat and enlisted with the Māori Contingent to serve with the ANZACS at Gallipoli, France and Belgium. He first enlisted as a military medical officer and later was appointed second in command of the Pioneer Battalion and ultimately first in command of the Māori Battalion. On returning to New Zealand, he became Director of Māori Hygiene, a position he retained until 1927 when he accepted an invitation to join the staff of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum in Hawaii. For five years he worked in the islands of the South Pacific and in Honolulu. In 1932 he was invited to be a visiting Professor of Anthropology at Yale University, a position to which he was reappointed in 1933. In 1936 he became Director of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum which carried with it a chair of Anthropology at Yale; he retained this position until his death in 1951. In 1946 he was knighted and awarded an honorary doctorate from Yale, Hawaii, Rochester and New Zealand. His qualifications include: D.S.O., M.D., CH.B., D.Sc.(NZ), MA (Yale), F.R.S.N.Z., F.R.A.I. He was awarded the Royal Order of the North Star by H.M. Gustaf V of Sweden in April 1949. He retired from Yale University as Professor of Anthropology in June 1949 and was awarded Professor Emeritus of Anthropology. In November 1949 he was appointed Honorary Consultant of the Research Council of the South Pacific Commission.

Biographical sources

  • Māori People Today: A General Survey. Ed. I. L. G. Sutherland. Christchurch, N.Z.: Whitcombe & Tombs, issued under the auspices of the NZ Institute of International Affairs and the NZ Council for Educational Research, 1940.: xii
  • Report of the Director For 1949. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 199. Peter H. Buck (Te Rangi Hiroa). Honolulu, Hawaii: The Museum, 1950. 7.
  • Te Kaunihera Māori 5.8 (1968): 6.

    Non-fiction

  • "Untitled Report" In "Report of Dr. Pomare, Health Officer to the Māoris." No further details.
  • Buck reports on his work as Assistant Native Health Officer in the Māori Councils Districts of Raukawa, Kurahaupo, Wanganui, Taranaki and certain areas in the Taupo districts and Maniapoto, since his appointment in October 1905. He discusses sanitation, health, mortality, and the work of the Māori councils, and gives his explanation for the high mortality rate of the Māori. He argues against the communistic system of holding property and calls for the individualisation of Māori lands. He stresses the need for more Māori nurses and Māori cottage hospitals with Māori staff.
  • "The Taranaki Māoris: Te Whiti and Parihaka." Papers and Addresses Read before the Second Conference of the Te Aute College Students’ Association, December, 1897. Napier: Daily Telegraph Office, 1898. 7-12.
  • Buck describes his visit to Parihaka in the winter of 1897 and gives an account of Te Whiti, as well as a detailed description of the buildings, and the impressive hospitality extended during their meetings on the 17th day of each month. Buck questions the absence of churches and general disinterest in church attendance amongst Taranaki Māori. He also notes the limited cultivation of the land. Buck concludes by assessing the benefits of the Te Whiti movement.
  • "The Decline of the Māori Race: The Causes and Remedies." Papers and Addresses read before the Third Annual Conference of the Te Aute College Students’ Assoc. Southbridge: Ellesmere Guardian Office, 1899. 3-7.
  • "Report of Native Health Officer." Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives of New Zealand. Session II, 1906. Report of Department of Public Health. H-31, 1906. 73-75.
  • "Report of Te Rangihiroa, Assistant Native Health Officer." Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives of New Zealand. 1907. Vol. IV. Health Dept Annual Report, H-31, 1907. 60-62.
  • Te Rangihiroa provides his annual report as Assistant Native Health Officer. He reports on the West Coast of the North Island, and the Araiteuru Pa at the New Zealand International Exhibition. Te Rangihiroa discusses the Māori Councils, sanitary inspectors, and the current state of the Taranaki people in 1907. He also describes his work dealing with sicknesses amongst the tribal groups working in the Exhibition Pa which was opened on 1 November, 1906.
  • "Report on Health of the Māoris." Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives of New Zealand. 1920. Vol. II. Health Dept Annual Report, H-31, 1907. 13-15.
  • As Medical Officer for the Māori, Te Rangihiroa writes of Māori population figures drawn from the 1916 census and notes the difficulties in enforcing the registration of Māori births and deaths. He writes of the new Māori health endeavours resulting from the 1918 influenza epidemic. He also comments on the role of sanitary inspectors and praises the work of the native health nurses, especially during the times of epidemics. He gives a report of the current diseases affecting the Māori and notes the improved sanitary conditions of the Māori "within the last few years."
  • "Report of Te Rangihiroa, Assistant Native Health Officer." In "Reports of Dr. Pomare, Health Officer to the Māoris, and of the Native Sanitary Inspectors." Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives of New Zealand. 1908. Vol. V. Health Dept Annual Report, H-31, Wellington, N.Z., 1908. Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives of New Zealand. 1908. Vol. V. Annual Report of the Public Health Department. H-31, Wellington, N.Z., 1908. 128-35.
  • Te Rangihiroa reports on his work in the Auckland Native Health District since his transfer from the North Island West Coast District in May 1907. He outlines the population figures of the district taken from the 1906 census, and discusses the high infant mortality, sanitation, sanitary inspectors, diseases suffered, open-air life, tohunga and "mate Māori", Māori nurses, and the medical inspection of native schools.
  • "Wairangi, He Tipuna No Ngāti Raukawa/Wairangi, An Ancestor of Ngāti Raukawa." Comp. and trans. Te Rangihiroa." Journal of the Polynesian Society 19 (1910): 197-200. Māori text. 201-205. English translation. Rpt. in Te Ao Hou 2 (1952): 18-22. In Māori and English.
  • This is the story of Wairangi’s quest to regain his wife Parawhete after she fled from him after her relationship with Tupeteka of Ngāti Maru. Painting red ochre along the way, Parewhete, ran from her home in Kawhia to Te Aea where she married Tupeteka. Wairangi and one hundred and forty Ngāti Raukawa people followed her to Te Aea; they were housed below the pa of Te Aea and tricked into believing a feast was being prepared for them while in reality the people of Te Aea had sent messengers to Hauraki to ask for support in killing the Ngāti Raukawa people. Parewhete eventually warns Wairangi of the impending treachery and Wairangi turns the tables by killing the people of Te Aea and reclaiming his wife before he returns to his home at Rurunui.
  • "On the Māori Art of Weaving Cloaks, Capes, and Kilts." New Zealand Dominion Museum Bulletin 3 (1911): 69-90.
  • Buck discusses the impact of European settlement on the weaving of kakahu, and notes the tribal areas that maintained a flourishing skill in kakahu weaving. Noting that Elsdon Best has already written about Tuhoe weaving, Buck focuses in this article on the weaving methods of the Whanganui tribes. He describes the initiation rites of the weaver, discusses in detail the varieties of flax used by Whanganui weavers and the respective uses of the different kinds of flax, and outlines the preparation of the fibre and dyes used. He writes of the weaving process, the varieties of kakahu, taniko, parawai, kahu huruhuru (feather garments), hieke, para, rapaki and method of wearing cloaks.,
  • "Some Notes on the Small Outrigger Canoes of Niue Fekai." New Zealand Dominion Museum Bulletin 3 (1911): 91-94.
  • A detailed description of the construction and decoration of the Niue vaka (outrigger canoe) which is built for fishing purposes. Buck drew information for these notes from Falani Tataaihi, One, and Ikifana of Niue.
  • "Some Tattoo Patterns from Mangaia." New Zealand Dominion Museum Bulletin 3 (1911): 95-97.
  • An account of Mangaian tattooing, ta tipatipa, in which Buck notes the instruments and dyes used. He also outlines twelve different patterns described to him by Taniera Tangitoru of Mangaia.
  • "Aitutaki Moko: Some Tattoo Patterns from Aitutaki." New Zealand Dominion Museum Bulletin 3 (1911): 98.
  • Buck discusses moko patterns from Aitutaki which he states are less varied than Mangaian tattoos but cover a larger distribution of the body. Buck obtained this information from Kake Maunga who attended the New Zealand International Exhibition in Christchurch in late 1906-1907 with a number of other Cook Islanders.
  • "Māori Food-Supplies of Lake Rotorua, with Methods of Obtaining Them, and Usages and Customs Appertaining Thereto." Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 53 (1921): 433-451.
  • In this paper read before the Auckland Institute, 15 December, 1920, Hiroa writes of the discovery and settlement of Rotorua from the time of the landing of the Arawa canoe. He discusses the varieties of fish found in the lake—the kakahi (fresh-water mussel), koura (fresh-water crayfish), inanga, toitoi and kokopi—and notes the fishing-grounds, landmarks and tumu (marking posts). He describes the different methods used in fishing such as tau koura, kupenga (nets), paepae (dredge net), and Kapu, and Mangakino (dredge rakes). Hiroa concludes by giving a description of the uses and preparations of the various shellfish and other fish, and notes the lengthy gathering process when preparing for a large hui such as that held at Awahou in 1899.
  • "Māori Decorative Art: No. 1, House-panels, (Arapaki, Tuitui, or Tukutuku)". Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 53 (1921): 452- 470.
  • In this paper read before the Auckland Institute, 20th December, 1920, Hiroa lists the different forms of Māori decorative art and focuses particularly on the decorated panels adjacent to the carved poupou inside the meeting house. Hiroa gives a detailed account of the various components of the decorative panel - the vertical stakes made of kakaho (flower-stalks of the toetoe), horizontal rods made of totara, rimu or kakaka (fern stalks) and the flexible material used to form the design made of harakeke, kiekie or pingao. He describes the method of stitching and the three kinds of stitch used: the cross-stitch, single stitch, and the overlapping wrapped stitch. He presents an account of the traditional Māori patterns and the post-European patterns with photographs and cross stitch plans illustrating the different designs. Hiroa writes of the evolution of the panels and describes the tribal variations of names used for the components and motifs of the panels
  • The Coming of the Māori. Cawthron Lecture, 1922. Nelson, N.Z.: R. W. Stiles and Co, 1925. 2nd ed. Wellington, N.Z.: Māori Purposes Fund Board, 1929; New Plymouth: Thomas Avery and Sons Ltd, 1929. Wellington, N.Z.: Māori Purposes Fund Board: Whitcombe & Tombs, 1949. 2nd ed. Wellington, N.Z.: Māori Purposes Fund Board, 1950. Rpt. Christchurch, N.Z.: Whitcoulls, 1982. An extract rpt. as "Summary of Traditional Settlement of New Zealand by the Māori." Hui Whakamahara Ki a Maui Pomare, Manukorihi Pa, Waitara, Hune 23-27, 1936. New Plymouth: McLeod & Slade, Printers & Lithographers, [1936]. 32-49. An extract rpt. as "Māori Culture and Decorative Art." Hui Whakamahara Ki a Maui Pomare, Manukorihi Pa, Waitara, Hune 23-27, 1936. New Plymouth: McLeod & Slade, Printers & Lithographers, [1936]. 50-56.
  • A comprehensive text on Māori ethnology including the mythology, migrations, material culture, social organisation and religion. This publication arose from a lecture given by Rangi Hiroa in 1925 in conjunction with the Cawthron Institute of Nelson. It was later published by the Institute.
  • "He Tangi mo Te Mete/A Lament for S. Percy Smith." Journal of the Polynesian Society 31 (1922): 80-83.
  • "Māori Somatology." Journal of the Polynesian Society 31 (1922): 159-170.
  • "Part VII.- Māori Hygiene." In "Department of Health: Annual Report of Director-General of Health." Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives of New Zealand. 1921-22 Vol. III. Health Dept Annual Report, H-31, 1922. 32-33.
  • Te Rangi Hiroa provides his annual report for the year ending March 1921 and writes of the implications of the Public Health Act of 1920 in revamping the former Māori Councils. He states that Māori health has seen improvement through the assistance of the native nurses and sanitary inspectors, and through the distribution of pamphlets. He questions the value of the subsidised medical officers.
  • "Māori Somatology. Racial Averages." Journal of the Polynesian Society 32.125 (1923): 21-28.
  • A continuation from JPS 31.4 of measurements of various body dimensions of the Māori averaged from 415 Māori. Buck states that a notable feature of the Māori physique is the "muscular development of the lower limb" which was enhanced when mothers would massage and manipulate their infants.
  • "Māori Somatology. Racial Averages." Journal of the Polynesian Society 32.128 (1923): 189-199.
  • In this continuation of the previous sections on Māori somatology, Buck summarises all the measurements and lists the averages of absolute measurements and tribal distribution of head forms. He concludes this study by stating that "four elements can be recognised amongst the Māoris".
  • "Māori Plaited Basketry and Plaitwork: 1, Mats, Baskets, and Burden-Carriers." Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 54 (1923): 705-742.
  • This comprehensive paper on Māori raranga and whiri/plaited basketry and plaitwork was read before the Auckland Institute, on 19th December, 1921. Hiroa states that he drew his source material from the Ngāti-Pamoana hapu of the Whanganui iwi who reside at Koriniti and Operiki. He discusses the different plants used for plaiting including the Harakeke, Wharariki, Kiekie, Pingao, Paopao, or Kutakuta, Ti-kouka, or Whanake, Toi and others. He writes about the preparation of the material and construction of the plaited work. Hiroa then gives detailed descriptions of mats, baskets, and burden-carriers/kawe and their construction.
  • "Part VIII. - Māori Hygiene." In "Department of Health: Annual Report of Director-General of Health." Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives of New Zealand. 1922. Vol. II. Health Dept Annual Report, H-31, Wellington, N.Z., 1923. 34-35.
  • As Director of the Division of Māori Hygiene, Te Rangi Hiroa provides his annual report of the year ending March, 1922. The report is divided into two sections: the first deals with native health and looks specifically at the Māori Health Councils which were reorganised under the 1920 Health Act. Te Rangi Hiroa notes the improved health of Māori compared with the previous year, the success of typhoid inoculation programmes, the improved sanitary conditions at tangi and hui, and the commendable work of the Māori Health Nurses. In the section entitled "Medical Attendance and Supplies", he writes of the reduction of the subsidised medical officers and suggests that it is time for Māori to pay for their medical care. He discusses the distribution of pamphlets on medical issues and the monthly articles in the newspaper Toa Takitini which warn of epidemic diseases.
  • "Part VI. - Māori Hygiene." In "Department of Health. Annual Report of Director-General of Health." Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives of New Zealand. 1927. Vol. III. Health Dept Annual Report, H-31, Wellington, N.Z., 1923. 27-28.
  • The annual report of the work of the Division of Māori Hygiene for the year ending March 1927 in which Te Rangi Hiroa notes the excellent general health of the Māori and commends the work of the district nurses. He reports that there was no upsurge in epidemic diseases and that anti-typhoid inoculating continues. He writes of improved sanitation in Māori villages, discusses water-supplies to Māori villages, the Māori Health Councils, registration of deaths, inspectors of health and the great value of the district health nurses.
  • "Part VII. - Māori Hygiene." In "Department of Health. Annual Report of Director-General of Health." Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives of New Zealand. 1923. Vol. II. Health Dept Annual Report, H-31, Wellington, N.Z., 1923. 43-45.
  • In this annual report of the year ending March 1923, Te Rangi Hiroa writes of the success of the Māori Health Councils, the improvements made to meeting houses, and the improved general health of the Māori which he attributes to the work of the Māori Health Councils, native nurses and inspectors, and to the ongoing inoculations against typhoid. He continues to use the distribution of circulars and articles through Te Toa Takitini to give advice on health matters and concludes by relating population figures of the Māori and discusses miscegenation.
  • "Māori Basketry and Plaitwork: 2, Belts and Bands, Fire-fans and Fly-flaps, Sandals and Sails." Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 55 (1924): 344-362.
  • This paper was read before the Auckland Institute, on 14 December, 1922. It is the second part of Hiroa’s study of Māori plaited basketry and plaitwork. The first part was published in Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 54 (1923): 705-742, and dealt with woven mats and baskets. This paper, drawing on tribal sources other than the Whanganui tribe, portrays the two kinds of plaited belts (head bands and men and women’s belts) with line drawings and notes detailing their construction. Hiroa also outlines the construction of oven bands, fire-fans/piupiu ahi, fly-flaps/patungaro, sandals/paraerae, and sails/ra or mamaru.
  • "The Passing of the Māori." Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 55 (1924): 362-375.
  • This paper was read before the Auckland Institute, on 16 October, 1922. Hiroa briefly summarises the viewpoints of five European observers of the Māori who prophesied the demise of the Māori race. He states his intention of reviewing the current condition of the Māori "to see how far the sad prognosis of the past has been borne out by the facts of the present." He discusses population figures of the Māori from the time of Captain Cook’s visits to New Zealand up until 1921 when the Colonial Government census figures stated the Māori population numbered 52,751. He discusses reasons for the diminution of the population and takes issue with those who propounded the extinction of the Māori race as late as 1907 when Māori population figures were clearly increasing. Hiroa examines the impact of European customs on Māori culture and notes the reasons for the current increase of population figures. Hiroa also writes on the decline of Māori communal life and an accompanying loss of the Māori arts. He also discusses the adaptation of the Māori to changing environment, the proportion of the sexes in the Māori population, density of the population and miscegenation.
  • "The Evolution of Māori Clothing. Introduction." Journal of the Polynesian Society 33.1 (1924): 25-47.
  • The first of a nine-part study on the evolution of Māori clothing. It was later published in a single publication of the same title. In this first section Buck discusses the distribution of clothing material in New Zealand, Polynesian bark cloth, preparation of clothing material, stone pounders, plaiting, weaving and basketry.
  • "The Evolution of Māori Clothing. II. Netting in Polynesia and New Zealand." Journal of the Polynesian Society 33.2 (1924): 121-129.
  • Buck briefly describes netting and plaiting in Polynesia and New Zealand, basketry in Polynesia and New Zealand and weaving in Polynesia. He also discusses Polynesian clothing.
  • "The Evolution of Māori Clothing. III. Polynesian Clothing." Journal of the Polynesian Society 33.3 (1924): 186-198.
  • Buck discusses garments not made of bark, Polynesian mats, and Hawaiian cloaks and other garments. He also provides a summary of Polynesian clothing techniques.
  • "The Evolution of Māori Clothing. IV. The Clothing of the New Zealand Māori." Journal of the Polynesian Society 33.4 (1924): 293-316.
  • Buck divides Māori clothing into four divisions which he then describes in detail with illustrations. He also outlines how they are constructed. The four garments are: maro/aprons; piupiu/kilts; mai, pokeka, or para/capes; and kahu or kakahu/cloaks. Buck writes of the preparation of the flax and construction of the various garments.
  • "Part VII. - Māori Hygiene." In "Department of Health. Annual Report of Director-General of Health." Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives of New Zealand. 1924. Vol. III. Health Dept Annual Report, H-31, Wellington, N.Z., 1924. 40-42.
  • In this annual report of the year ending March 1924, Te Rangi Hiroa notes the ongoing progress being made in the area of Māori health and discusses the Māori Health Councils, the inauguration of water-supplies, the sanitary improvements in villages and at tangi and hui, and the continuing inoculations against typhoid. In his concluding section of his report, Te Rangi Hiroa writes of the physique of the Māori and challenges the assumption of some that the "physique of the Māori race has deteriorated since contact with civilisation". Hiroa writes of his existing research on the measurements of 424 full-blooded Māori of the Māori Battalion which has been published in the Journal of the Polynesian Society. He gives figures of average sizes of the Māori.
  • "The Pre-European Diet of the Māori." N. Z. Dental Journal (1925): 3-15. No further details.
  • "The Evolution of Māori Clothing. V. The Māori Technique of the Weft." Journal of the Polynesian Society 34.1 (1925): 61-92.
  • A continuation of Hiroa’s comprehensive study of Māori clothing the first part of which was published in the Journal of the Polynesian Society 33.1 (1924). In this article Hiroa provides a highly detailed study of Māori weaving. In particular, he describes the weft strokes in spaced and close single-pair twining/aho patahi and pauku or pukupuku, two-pair twining/aho rua, and wrapped twined weaving/taniko. He discusses taniko designs and other weft techniques not so commonly used, such as the spaced half-hitch weft, and twilled weaving.
  • "The Evolution of Māori Clothing. VI. The Shaping of Māori Clothing." Journal of the Polynesian Society 34.2 (1925): 99-123.
  • In this article Hiroa discusses the shaping of Māori clothing through interpolated shorter weft rows/aho poka or tihoi, simple inserts/poka, and compound elliptical inserts. He also describes the placing of elliptical and wedge-shaped inserts in garments and shaping in close single-pair twining and taniko.
  • "The Evolution of Māori Clothing. VII. The Attachment of Rain Tags, Ornamental Tags and Feathers to Māori Garments." Journal of the Polynesian Society 34.3 (1925): 224-252.
  • Hiroa writes of the addition and attachment of rain tags to garments to make them more waterproof. This was accomplished through the construction of a "portable thatch" through freeing one end of the warp lengths/para, or by attaching separate lengths of scraped or unscraped material or tags to the warps. These tags also provided opportunity for ornamentation for special cloaks; feathers were also used. Hiroa discusses featherwork in Polynesia and other areas and the use of dog’s hair and dogskin.
  • "The Evolution of Māori Clothing. VIII. Minor Ornamentation, Paheke." Journal of the Polynesian Society 34.4 (1925): 321-355.
  • Aside from the major ornamentation of garments described in the earlier sections of this study, Hiroa now examines the minor ornamentation/paheke which he distinguishes as short tags, loops. spirals, circles, ovals, twists and ornamental fringes. He discusses where these ornaments were located on the garments and demonstrates how the weft and warp elements could be lengthened and thickened, and how the garments were finished off with waist bands, neck bands and fastening cords/tau.
  • "Part VIII. - Māori Hygiene." In "Department of Health. Annual Report of Director-General of Health." Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives of New Zealand. 1925. Vol. III. Health Dept Annual Report, H-31, Wellington, N.Z., 1925. 49-50.
  • In this annual report of the year ending March 1925, Te Rangi Hiroa notes the continued improvement of Māori health which he attributes to the fact that "[t]he communal system of living has been disintegrated by the individualisation of land. The crowded cluster of huts is no more. Even the thatched house is an ethnological curiosity. The tribal meeting houses stand lone and deserted until custom and usage causes the tribe to assemble for a brief period. It is becoming increasingly difficult to distinguish between Māori habitations and those of their white countrymen." Amidst a generally positive account of every aspect of Māori health and sanitation, Hiroa notes that typhoid fever "continues to be our greatest problem", but he asserts that the Health Nurses continue to be the "first line of defence against the spread of infectious disease amongst the Māori." He concludes with a brief note that data is still being collected on the physical stature of the Māori.
  • "Mate Whakarori Tamariki. (Infantile Paralysis)." Te Toa Takitini 43 (1925): 187-188.
  • "Te Heitiki A Reira Pakihini." Te Toa Takitini 47 (1925): 242.
  • The Evolution of Māori Clothing. Memoirs of the Polynesian Society. Vol. 7. New Plymouth, N.Z.: Thomas Avery & Sons. Printed under the authority of The Board of Māori Ethnological Research, 1926.
  • Buck writes that this study of the evolution of Māori clothing is an "elaboration of a paper read before the Congress of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science held in Wellington, New Zealand, in 1923." He adds that the Monograph "does not profess to be an exhaustive treatise on Māori clothing.... It is merely an attempt at a close study of the technical processes used in the manufacture of garments, and an inquiry into the order of their evolution and introduction into the craft." This study was first published in nine volumes of the Journal of the Polynesian Society, from 1924-26. This monograph is divided into those nine parts, with an index included. See annotations for more detail.
  • "The Evolution of Māori Clothing. IX. Connecting Māori Technique." Journal of the Polynesian Society 35.1 (1926): 112-150. Rpt. as Polynesian Society Memoir 7 1926.
  • In this continuation from the previous articles, Hiroa provides a detailed description of two South Island rain capes stored in the Otago University Museum. He gives illustrated accounts of their construction. Buck discusses the clothing of the Chatham Island Moriori who according to H.D. Skinner have a material culture similar to that of the south of the South Island of New Zealand. Buck also discusses the clothing of the North Pacific Area in North America and makes comparisons with Māori weaving techniques.
  • "The Value of Tradition in Polynesian Research." Journal of the Polynesian Society 35.139 (1926): 181-203.
  • In this essay Buck defines tradition "as history derived from an unwritten source" and he briefly discusses the respective merits of traditions handed down orally. He also considers the "ill-considered statements of many early writers". Buck examines the transmission of tradition through the Whare Wananga and the importance of recitations of whakapapa and tribal histories in order to safeguard the accuracy of the oral traditions. Buck outlines various traditions including the Aotea traditions of Ra’iatea, Rangitahua and the karaka tree.
  • "The Māori Craft of Netting." Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 56 (1926): 597-646.
  • In this paper, read before the Auckland Institute, on 25th November, 1924, Hiroa begins by giving an introduction to the importance of fish in the Māori diet. He notes that Māori caught fish through hook and line, seine-nets and other smaller nets and traps. Hiroa’s sources for this paper come from a Dominion Museum ethnological expedition to the Ngāti Porou tribal area in 1923; he also drew on earlier notes from the Whanau-Apanui tribe. Hiroa states that he confines his interest in this paper to the smaller nets used for fishing. He gives a detailed account of the materials used for the netting and provides an illustrated description of the four different methods of net-making construction: the closed-loop commencement, the clove-hitch commencement, the double-mesh commencement, and the double-strip commencement. Hiroa goes on to give further details on the net construction. He describes the various kinds of net and their respective uses: baited trap-nets; scoop-nets which were used for catching kehe, kahawai and warehou; three kinds of bag-nets which were used for catching crayfish, tangahangaha and maomao; and four varieties of set trap-nets.
  • "Part VIII. - Māori Hygiene." In "Department of Health. Annual Report of Director-General of Health." Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives of New Zealand. 1926. Vol. II. Health Dept Annual Report, H-31, Wellington, N.Z., 1926. 42-44.
  • Te Rangi Hiroa discusses different explanations for the decrease of incidence of typhoid fever amongst the Māori and also reports on the Māori Councils, the inauguration of water-supplies, sanitary improvements, and continuing typhoid inoculation. He again commends the work of the Native Health Inspectors and Native Health Nurses.
  • The Material Culture of the Cook Islands (Aitutaki). New Plymouth: Thomas Avery & Sons, under the authority of the Board of Māori Ethnological Research, 1927. Memoirs of the Board of Māori Ethnological Research, Volume 1.
  • Buck travelled to the Cook Islands in the second half of 1926. He states that this book "is based on the data collected in Aitutaki in five weeks, and checked in certain technical details during a further five weeks’ stay in Rarotonga." In ten chapters Buck gives a detailed description of the Aitutaki houses, domestic furniture, utensils, cords, clothing and footwear, mats, baskets, fans, stonework, canoes, fishing, fowling, games, recreations, weapons, agricultural tools, musical instruments, personal adornment and decorative art. With each chapter Buck provides a comparison between the material culture of the Cook Islands and that of the New Zealand Māori. There are many photographs and line drawings illustrating the construction of many aspects of the Aitutaki material culture.
  • "Māori Diet." Australian Med. Congr. Trans. as Suppl. to Med.J.Aust. 2 (1927): 146-150.
  • "Historical Māori Artefacts." New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology 9.1 (1927): 35-41.
  • Hiroa gives a detailed description and history of two Māori artefacts - a putorino/flute-like instrument belonging originally to Tangi-wharau, and a ceremonial adze given to Ngāti Porou ancestor Hunaara by Te Kapa.
  • "Māori Diet." Australian Med. Congr. Trans. Supplement to Med Jl. of Australia 2 (1927): 146-150.
  • "Part VI. - Māori Hygiene." In "Department of Health. Annual Report of Director-General of Health.’ Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives of New Zealand. 1927. Vol. III. Health Dept Annual Report, H-31, Wellington, N.Z., 1927. 27-28.
  • Annual report of the work of the Division of Māori Hygiene in the year ending March 1927. Te Rangi Hiroa notes the excellent general health of the Māori and he commends the work of the district nurses. He notes no upsurge in any of the epidemic diseases and reports on the continued anti-typhoid inoculating. He writes that sanitation in Māori villages "has improved beyond measure". He also writes of water-supplies to Māori villages, the Māori Health Councils, registration of deaths, inspectors of health and the great value of the district health nurses.
  • "Fish-Poisoning in Rarotonga, Hoar.’ Journal of the Polynesian Society 37.145 (1928): 57- 66.
  • A detailed description of a fish drive witnessed by Buck near the village of Arorangi in Rarotonga, with additional data supplied by Makea Tinirau - ariki of Rarotonga.
  • "Polynesian Education." The Friend. Honolulu. 1928. 277-278. No further details.
  • "Races of the Pacific." Problems of the Pacific. Ed. J. B. Condliffe. (Institute of Pacific Relations, 2nd Conference proc, Honolulu, 1927). Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1928. 232-236.
  • "Canoe Outrigger-Attachments in Tahiti and New Zealand." Journal of the Polynesian Society 38.151 (1929): 183-215.
  • During his one-month stay in Tahiti, Hiroa examined the island’s canoes; he presents in this article a highly detailed report of the variations observed in the components of the canoe outrigger-attachments. He also discusses the canoe of the Māori and notes that "[s]o far only two fragments of the ancient outrigger-type of canoe have been discovered in New Zealand". He discusses these in relation to those of Tahiti.
  • Samoan Material Culture. Honolulu, Hawaii: Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Bulletin 75, 1930.
  • Te Rangi Hiroa spent six months in Samoa from September 1927. He concentrated his research on the material culture. He examines and discusses the housing, cooking utensils, foodstuffs, plaiting, clothing, stonework, canoes, fishing, hunting, horticulture, games and recreations, musical instruments, weapons, religious objects, and personal adornment and decoration.
  • "Terminology for Ground Stone Cutting-Implements in Polynesia." Journal of the Polynesian Society 39.154 (1930): 174-180.
  • Co-authors Peter H. Buck, Kenneth P. Emory, H. D. Skinner, and John F. G. Stokes. This paper has been written to standardise the terminology used for Polynesian ground stone cutting-implements in Museum field records and research publications. The authors provide definitions of the hafted adze, axe, chisel, gouge, wedge and the adze and its various components. They also provide terms used for the processes of manufacture of the implements.
  • "Māori Canoe-Sail in the British Museum, Additional Notes." Journal of the Polynesian Society 40 (1931): 136-140.
  • "Polynesian Education." The Friend. Honolulu, 1931. 56-58. No further details.
  • "Comment on Native Land Development Schemes in N.Z". "Native land development." N.Z. Parliament. Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives. - G-10, 1931. xiii-xiv.
  • Statement by Sir Apirana Ngata.
  • Ethnology of Tongareva. Honolulu, Hawaii: Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Bulletin 92, 1932.
  • This study is based on field work conducted by Te Rangi Hiroa on the atoll of Tongareva where he stayed for seventeen days in June-July 1929. The study is divided into social organisation, sickness, death, myths, religion, houses, cooking, foods, plaiting, clothing and adornment, stonework, canoes, fishing, weapons, stars and calendar.
  • Ethnology of Manihiki and Rakahanga. Honolulu, Hawaii: Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Bulletin 99,1932.
  • This study was conducted by Te Rangi Hiroa during the Cook Islands Expedition of Bernice P. Bishop Museum in 1929. He made a brief visit to the two atolls and states that the study "can only hope to record some of the main points in the culture of the people. Details as to spread of the coconut and the ownership of land await the further investigator of land claims, when more information is available.’ Te Rangi Hiroa discusses traditional history, social organisation, material culture, food, plaiting, clothing, stonework, canoes, fishing, war and weapons, recreations, religion, sickness and death and the calendar. He provides a list of literature cited.
  • "The Late Elsdon Best, F. N. Z. Inst." Journal of the Polynesian Society 41.161 (1932): 1-49. Hiroa’s section 15-21. Rpt. of Hiroa’s obituary only as "Obituary - Elsdon Best, F.N.Z. Inst." in Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 62 (1932): 179-182.
  • A comprehensive obituary of the life and work of Elsdon Best whom Hiroa describes as New Zealand’s "greatest student of Māori lore and culture." This is one of a series of tributes to Elsdon Best published in this Elsdon Best Memorial Number of the Journal of the Polynesian Society. The tributes are followed by "List of Publications" by Elsdon Best."
  • "Recording of Polynesian Texts and Proper Names." Journal of the Polynesian Society 41 (1932): 253-261.
  • "Samoan Education." The Friend. Honolulu, 1932. 346-8, 404-6.
  • "Polynesian Voyages." Man 33.136 (1933): 134. Rpt. in "Short Notes" in Journal of the Polynesian Society 42 (1933): 330-331.
  • This is a summary of a paper presented by Te Rangi Hiroa on 4 July 1933. It is reproduced in its summarised form in Journal of the Polynesian Society. Hiroa discusses the oral tradition and whakapapa of the Polynesian people. He also discusses earlier and later Polynesian voyages
  • Mangaian Society. Honolulu, Hawaii: Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Bulletin 122, 1934.
  • Research of Mangaian Society was carried out by Te Rangi Hiroa during his visit to Mangaia from December 1929 to April 1930 when he was acting Commissioner of the High Court of the Cook Islands. The book is subdivided into sections dealing with origin myths, history and genealogical records, social organisation, the tribe, titles, land, labour, craftsmanship, housing, foods, clothing, canoes, fishing, education, games, justice, war, religion, sickness and magic, and death and spirits.
  • "Polynesian Material in European Museums." Report of the Director for 1933. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 124. By Herbert E. Gregory. Honolulu, Hawaii: The Museum, 1934. 35-37.
  • Buck reports on his three-month study tour of Europe in 1933 when he examined Polynesian material in museums in England, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and France.
  • "Comment on an Article on Supposed Māori Bowls." In "Correspondence" Journal of the Polynesian Society 43.169 (1934): 35-36.
  • In this letter to the editors dated 10 November 1933, Hiroa comments on "An Article on Supposed Māori Bowls" in "Notes and Questions" Journal of the Polynesian Society 42.167 (1933): 222-225, and proffers two corrections.
  • "Material Representatives of Tongan and Samoan Gods." Journal of the Polynesian Society 44.173 (1935): 48-53.
  • In this introduction, Hiroa gives an overview of Polynesian responses to gods, priests and sites of religious ritual. He notes that there were three main types of religious places of worship: stone structures, wooden structures and no specialised structure. In his discussion of the material representatives of Tongan and Samoan gods, Hiroa distinguishes two groups: animate and inanimate. In this first article he discusses in detail the animate representatives embodied in bird and animal life, in human forms, and in natural phenomena such as lightning, cloud, stars, rainbow and the moon.
  • "Material Representatives of Tongan and Samoan gods." Journal of the Polynesian Society 44.174 (1935): 85-96.
  • The second part of this paper deals with the inanimate representatives of Samoan and Tongan gods. Hiroa lists various material objects such as whales’ teeth, shells, mats, clubs and bowls used as fetishes in Tonga and Samoa. Hiroa then goes on to provide a study of inanimate representatives of gods shaped in human form from Tonga. He provides a study of Samoa gods, drawing from artefacts held in various collections. He provides illustrations, detailed descriptions and comparisons of the Samoan and Tongan images. He also writes of the use of bird, fish and human forms on the carvings of weapons of Western Polynesia.
  • "The Physical Characters of the Cook Islanders." B. P. Bishop Museum Memoirs 12.1 (1936): 1-35.
  • Co-authors P. H. Buck and H. L. Shapiro.
  • "Introduction". Marsden and the Missions: Prelude to Waitangi. By Eric Ramsden. Sydney, Australia: Angus & Robertson, 1936. vii-x.
  • Buck asserts that this book "is not only an addition to colonial history but is a valuable contribution to the wider study of the impact of civilisation on native races."
  • "Foreword". Blood of the Shark. By B. A. Paton. Honolulu: Paradise of the Pacific Press, 1936. 2nd ed. 1937.
  • "Additional Wooden Images from Tonga." Journal of the Polynesian Society 46 (1937): 74-82.
  • "Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum." Paradise of the Pacific 49.2 (1937): 5-6, 26-27.
  • Report of the Director for 1936. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 149. Honolulu, Hawaii: The Museum, 1937.
  • Buck writes that Herbert E. Gregory retired as Director of Bernice P. Bishop Museum on June 10, 1936. Buck was appointed Director in his place on July 1, 1936. Buck notes his initial moves to update the rules regulating "exchanges and loans of Museum material", and writes of other staff activities. He then provides reports written by various scholars on Anthropology, Botany, Zoology, Entomology, Ornithology, Marine Zoology, and Geology. He lists the museum’s publications and occasional papers, and includes reports by Edwin H. Bryan, Curator of Collections, and Mary P. Wheeler, acting librarian
  • Vikings of the Sunrise. New York: Frederick A. Stokes, 1938. Philadephia, Penn: Lippincott, 1938. Rpt. Christchurch, N.Z.: Whitcombe & Tombs, 1954. Rpt. in 1958. Rpt. in 1964. Rpt. in translation as Les Migrations Des Polynesians, Les Vikings Du Soleil Levant. Paris: Pagot, 1952.
  • In his prologue, Buck writes that Vikings of the Sunrise "is an attempt to make known to the general public some of the romance associated with the settlement of Polynesia by a stone-age people who deserve to rank among the world’s great navigators." He adds, "I have tried to tell the tale from the evidence in Polynesian myths regarding the creation of man and of islands, and in legends and traditions of the great seafaring ancestors and their voyages. Though the story is not intended for critical anthropologists, I have mentioned various customs and usages that I deem of interest to them and to the general reader."
  • "My People, the Māori." Asia 38 (1938): 581-586.
  • "Preface". Mangareva: L’Histoire Ancienne d’un Peuple Polynesian. Honore Laval. Paris: Geuthner, 1938.
  • Report of the Director for 1937. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 155. Peter H. Buck (Te Rangi Hiroa). Honolulu, Hawaii: The Museum, 1938.
  • A report of Buck’s activities at the Museum with annual reports from staff in areas of Anthropology, Botany, Zoology and Geology, lists of museum publications, and reports from the Curator of Collections and from the Librarian.
  • Anthropology and Religion. New Haven (USA): Yale UP; London: Oxford UP, 1939.
  • In his introduction Buck writes that this book deals with "the birth, growth, and decay of Polynesian religion under the following headings: I. Man Creates His Gods; II. The Gods Create Man; and III. The Death of the Gods. This is the text of three papers delivered in the Terry Lectures at Yale University which focus on ‘Religion in the Light of Science and Philosophy’".
  • "The Hawaiians Arrive in Hawaii." Paradise of the Pacific 51 (1939): 6-8.
  • "Mangarevan Images." Ethnologia Cramorensis 4 (1939): 13-19.
  • "Islands of the Pacific. Pacific Cultures." Official Catalogue Golden Gate International Exposition, Division of Pacific Cultures. San Francisco, 1939. 114-116.
  • "Vikings of the Sunrise, March 25, 1939." Royal Canadian Inst. Proceedings. Ser. Illa, Vol. iv (1939): 29-30.
  • "Note On A Carved Drum From Raivavae (High Island)." Man 39 (1939). No further details.
  • Report of the Director for 1938. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 164. Honolulu, Hawaii: The Museum, 1939.
  • Buck writes of staff activities and of the rearranging of the Polynesian Hall exhibits in order to represent adequately "the main Polynesian groups". He also writes of Dr C Montague Cooke’s standing in as Acting Director while he (Buck) was on leave of absence. Buck provides reports written by various scholars in the areas of Anthropology, Botany, Zoology, Entomology, Ornithology, Marine Zoology, and Geology. He lists the museum’s publications, occasional papers, and special publications. He includes reports by Edwin H. Bryan, Curator of Collections, and Margaret Titcomb, librarian. Buck also includes an article by himself entitled "Photograph Catalog of Polynesian Artifacts" in which he writes of the establishment at Bishop Museum of a photographic catalogue "of all authentic Polynesian artifacts in the various collections and museums". He argues this is necessary because of the disappearance of various forms of arts and crafts in their countries of origin in Polynesia, and because of the "late establishment" of the Bishop Museum which means many old artifacts are held in other museums.
  • "Foreword". The Māori People Today: A General Survey. Ed. I. L. G. Sutherland. Christchurch, N.Z.: Whitcombe & Tombs Ltd, issued under the auspices of the NZ Institute of International Affairs and the NZ Council for Educational Research, 1940. 1-17.
  • "Interacting Forces in the Māori Family." The American Anthropologist 42 (1940). Rpt. New York: Kraus Reprint Corporation, 1962. 195-210.
  • Co-authors Bernard Willard Aginsky and Te Rangi Hiroa (Peter H. Buck). The authors discuss the far-reaching implications of primogeniture in Māori society and examine the importance of whakapapa and marriage in determining tribal relationships. They examine the clearly demarcated relationships between junior and senior relatives. They also discuss marriage arrangements from whakapapa, karanga rua, patrilineal and patrilocal nature of Maori society, and women in the whakapapa
  • "Native Races Need Not Die." Asia 40 (1940): 379-382. Rpt. in Te Ao Hou 1 (1952): 16-19.
  • In this essay Buck begins by disputing the "theory that all native races are doomed to extinction after contact with western culture". He cites the Māori, who were supposedly destined for extinction, but had in fact by 1940 a birth rate four times greater than the Pakeha birth rate. While noting the devastating effect of "civilisers" upon indigenous groups such as the Tasmanians and Australian Aborigines, he contends that in other groups "the law of extinction of native races has been disproved." He discusses how indigenous people have accommodated and adjusted to many changes over the centuries and he describes the journey of the Polynesians from Asia to Indonesia, to the Society Islands and then on to New Zealand. In this journey, Buck notes that fishing skills were learnt and developed, food plants were cultivated, and tools were made from shells and stones. Each move required considerable adjustment to varying climatic and geographical conditions, and the availability of raw materials and food supplies. When the Māori reached New Zealand further adjustments were needed. Buck writes that the European introduction of metal tools ushered the Māori out of the Stone Age; in the following years of interaction with the European settlers, changes occurred in clothing, food cultivation, cooking methods and religious activities. To a slower degree, changes also occurred in social organisation.
  • "Interacting Forces in the Māori Family." Selected papers of B.W. Aginsky and E. G. Aginsky. New York, printing unlimited (1955). First published in The American Anthropologist 42 (1940). No further details.
  • Co-authored with B. W. Aginsky.
  • Report of the Director for 1939. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 167. Honolulu, Hawaii: The Museum, 1940.
  • A brief report is given of Buck’s half year at Yale University’s Graduate School where he taught "Polynesian Culture" and "Pacific Material Culture". He also presented the Terry Lectures on "Anthropology and Religion". Reference is also made of his Commencement Address at the University of Rochester, New York, his conferment of the honorary degree of Doctor of Science and his return to Bishop Museum where he continued his study of the Cook Islands’ arts and crafts. Included are the annual Bishop Museum research reports in Anthropology, Botany, Zoology, Entomology, Ornithology, Marine Zoology, and Geology. He also lists the bulletins, occasional papers and other publications of 1939. The report also contains Margaret Titcomb’s Report of the Librarian and Edwin H. Bryan’s Report as Curator of Collections, and three obituaries.
  • "Pan-Pipes in Polynesia." Journal of the Polynesian Society 50.200 (1941): 173-184.
  • In this essay Buck provides a detailed description with illustrations of four Tongan panpipes held in the British Museum and one held by the Berne Museum. He writes of the panpipes of Samoa and New Zealand based on their inclusion in Marshall’s list of Māori musical instruments in his Account of New Zealand (1834). Buck questions why there is only one instrument in the British Museum attributed to New Zealand when many other Māori musical instruments are held in the museum. Concluding that the instrument was made of bamboo which was not present in New Zealand in pre-European times, Buck suggests that the instrument was not of New Zealand origin.
  • "The Study of Polynesian Material Culture." Mankind: Official Journal of the Anthropological Societies of Australia 3.1 (1941): 1-6.
  • A discussion of the processes involved in the scientific study of material culture with specific examples from Buck’s own research into Polynesian crafts and an analysis of their construction by direct observation on the field and studying work housed in museums. Buck also describes the Bishop Museum’s photograph catalogue.
  • Report of the Director for 1940. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 171. Honolulu, Hawaii: The Museum, 1941.
  • In this report Buck briefly describes the impact of the war on the Museum’s activities. He notes the progress in the exhibition halls and the natural history collections, and he states that his project on the Arts and Crafts of the Cook Islands is almost completed. This report also contains the annual research reports in Anthropology, Botany, Zoology, Entomology, Ornithology, Marine Zoology, and Geology, a list of the 1940 publications, and reports by the Curator of Collections and the Librarian.
  • "The Disappearances of Canoes in Polynesia." Journal of the Polynesian Society 51 (1942): 191-199.
  • "The Origin of the Polynesians: Work Done and to be Done." Pacific Islands Monthly 13.5 (1942): 24-25.
  • Report of the Director for 1941. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 175. Honolulu, Hawaii: The Museum, 1942.
  • Buck writes that in 1941 the Museum "has felt the effect of the war" and that "communication with specialists in belligerent and occupied countries has been interrupted, expeditions into the field have been suspended, and publishing has been hampered by the difficulties of mailing manuscripts and proofs." He also notes the planning of safeguards to protect natural science specimens and ethnological artifacts in the event of Hawaii being attacked, and of the closure of the Exhibition Halls for two weeks after the bombing of Pearl Harbour. The annual reports of staff and Associates at the Museum in Anthropology, Botany, Zoology, Entomology, Ornithology, Marine Zoology, and Geology, are reproduced in condensed form. The report includes the 1941 publications and reports by the Curator of Collections and the Librarian.
  • "The Feather Capes and Cloaks of Old Polynesians." Paradise of the Pacific March 1943. No further details.
  • "The Feather Capes and Cloaks of Old Hawaii." Paradise of the Pacific April 1943. No further details.
  • "The Feather Cloak of Tahiti." Journal of the Polynesian Society 52 (1943): 12-15.
  • Report of the Director For 1942. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 180. Report of the Director for 1941. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 175. Honolulu, Hawaii: The Museum, 1943.
  • In this report Buck writes of the precautions made by the Museum in light of the threat of possible bombing during the Second World War. He notes the assistance the Museum gave to various wartime endeavours, reports on staff movements, and states that he has completed his manuscript "Arts and Crafts of the Cook Island". He also states that he "wrote several articles for the Journal of the Polynesian Society". He includes condensed versions of reports of members of the staff and Museum Associates. The report contains the text of Buck’s "Special Topics: Hawaiian Shark-Tooth Implements" (27-41), in which Buck writes that this study has been included "for the purpose of indicating a procedure that may be adopted with museum specimens when direct information from native craftsmen is not procurable."
  • Arts and Crafts of the Cook Islands. Honolulu, Hawaii: The Museum, 1944. [Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin, 179]
  • "The Local Evolution of Hawaiian Feather Capes and Cloaks." Journal of the Polynesian Society 53 (1944): 1-16.
  • "School for Castaways." Pacific Islands Monthly 15.2 (1944): 22.
  • Report of the Director For 1943. B. P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 182. Honolulu, Hawaii: The Museum, 1944.
  • Buck continues to report on the debilitating effects of the war on the museum’s activities in terms of curtailing research work, sending out study material, depleted staff and limited printing facilities. Brief staff reports are included in Anthropology, Botany, Zoology, Entomology, Ornithology, Marine Zoology, and Geology. The 1943 publications are listed and the reports of the librarian and acting curator of collections are enclosed. The report concludes with an article by Buck entitled "Native Crafts have Gone to War" which describes the special programmes and an exhibition at the Museum on "techniques which might help castaways to live off the land"; this was primarily directed to the armed forces.
  • An Introduction to Polynesian Anthropology. Honolulu, Hawaii: Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Bulletin 187, 1945. Rpt. New York: Kraus Reprint Co, 1971.
  • This "extensive regional survey of the anthropology in Polynesia" was part of a wider survey of work done in earth sciences, biological sciences, social sciences, and the humanities. This work was conducted in the Pacific after the Second World War under the instigation of the U. S National Research Council, the Social Research Council, and the American Council of Learned Societies. Hiroa writes that this work "begins with introductory remarks on Polynesia and the Polynesian people, followed by some account[s] of Pacific explorers, later or other writers, and the work of Bishop Museum. The literature cited is divided into three groupings. The literature on the early voyages is listed chronologically (pp.66-75), from the voyage of Mendana in 1595 to the voyages made in the first half of the nineteenth century; and the islands visited are cited. This is followed by a list of general literature (pp. 76-79) dealing with Polynesia as a whole or part, and arranged alphabetically under two headings: other writers and Bishop Museum publications. The individual groups or islands are then dealt with, commencing with Easter Island in the far east, working west, then north, and finally south. Some introductory remarks about each island and its people are given before the selected lists of literature. The works are listed under the three groupings: early voyages with the date reference to the detailed list on pages 66-75, other writers arranged alphabetically, and Bishop Museum publications with the authors arranged alphabetically. Brief reference is also made to some of the outlying islands in Melanesia which are inhabited by people speaking the Polynesian language."
  • Report of the Director For 1944. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 186. Honolulu, Hawaii: The Museum, 1945.
  • Buck notes the restricting effects of the war on the museum and writes of his study of the Hawaiian arts and crafts. Staff reports in Anthropology, Botany, Zoology, Entomology, Ornithology, Marine Zoology, and Geology are included, as are the 1944 publications, librarian’s report and acting curator of collections’ report. Two special topics are featured in this report: Buck’s "Cook’s Discovery of the Hawaiian Islands" (26-44) in which he notes various fallacies concerning the discovery of the Hawaiian Islands and outlines in detail the evidence which supports his contention that James Cook was "the first white discoverer of the islands". Buck describes Cook’s two visits to Hawaii in 1778 and 1779 and disproves the different theories propounding the "alleged Spanish discovery" of Hawaii.
  • "Hawaiian Dog-Teeth Ornaments." Hawaiian Academy of Science 21st Annual Meeting Proc, 1945-6 (1946)
  • "Foreword". Some Modern Māoris. By Ernest & Pearl Beaglehole. Christchurch, N.Z.: New Zealand Council for Educational Research, Whitcombe & Tombs. London: Oxford UP, 1946. v-xvii.
  • Te Rangi Hiroa introduces the authors, Ernest and Pearl Beaglehole, who were his former students at Yale University. He provides a background on the nature of their research on the Māori and he discusses their method of study which has been termed psychoanthropology by E. G. Burrows. He also comments on various points raised in the book, including the section demonstrating a high degree of Pakeha racism toward the Māori which challenged Hiroa’s previous perception of racial harmony in New Zealand.
  • Report of the Director For 1945. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 188. Honolulu, Hawaii: The Museum, 1946.
  • Buck writes of the continuing staff shortages which affect the routine operating of the museum. He also discusses his personal research work and travels to American Samoa and Fiji. Staff reports in Anthropology, Botany, Zoology, Entomology, Ornithology, Marine Zoology, and Geology, are included, as are the 1945 publications, librarian’s report and acting curator of collections’ report. The report concludes with Buck’s article entitled "The Work and Policy of the Bishop Museum" (29-38). In this article Buck writes a history of Bishop Museum and discusses the changing scope of the museum, the fellowships and expeditions, the publications and research conducted by the museum up to 1945, and future plans of the museum.
  • Report of the Director For 1946. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 192. Honolulu, Hawaii: The Museum, 1947.
  • Buck notes that while additional staff have been employed, "pre-war conditions have not yet returned to the Museum". He discusses the "planning for future scientific research in the Pacific" and the convening of a Pacific Science Conference held Washington in June 6-8. He notes his current research projects and his conferment of the Order of Knight Commander of St. Michael and St George by the New Zealand Government in 1946. Staff reports in Anthropology, Botany, Zoology, Entomology, Ornithology, Marine Zoology, and Geology, are included, as are the 1946 publications, the librarian’s report and the curator of collections’ report. Buck’s article "The Pacific Science Survey" (33-45) is published at the conclusion of the report. Buck writes of the different scientific bodies associated with research in the Pacific and notes specifically the National Research Council , the Pacific Science Conference held in 1946, the Pacific Science Board, the Honolulu Committee of the National Research Council, the U. S. Commercial Company, the University of Hawaii, the Pacific War Memorial, the French Institute of Oceania and the role of Bishop Museum.
  • Report of the Director For 1947. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 194. Honolulu, Hawaii: The Museum, 1948.
  • Buck writes of the resumption of outside contacts and field work in 1947. He also describes the Museum’s participation in the Coordinated Investigation of Micronesian Anthropology, and he gives an account of his own research. Staff reports in Anthropology, Botany, Zoology, Entomology, Marine Zoology, Ichthyology, Ornithology, Geology and Geography, are included, as are the 1947 publications, the acting librarian’s report and the acting curator of collections’ report. Buck’s article "Bishop Museum Expedition to Kapingamarangi" is published at the conclusion of the report. In it Buck gives an account of the four-member team from Bishop Museum which was funded and approved by the Pacific Science Board as part of the wider Coordinated Investigation of Micronesian Anthropology to ‘study the general anthropology, physical characters, and language of the people’ of Kapingamarangi atoll. The team travelled to the atoll in July and conducted a three-month research programme on the people, language, social organisation, religion, material culture: food, housing, clothing, canoes, fishing, and museum specimens.
  • The Coming of the Māori. Wellington, N.Z.: Māori Purposes Fund Board, Whitcoulls, 1949. Rpt. 1952, 1958, 1962, 1966, 1970, 1974, 1977, 1982. Two excerpts are rpt in The Writing of New Zealand: Inventions and Identities. Ed. Alex Calder. Auckland, N.Z.: Reed, 1993. 127-137.
  • This publication contains a foreword by Rt Hon P. Fraser, who was Minister of Māori Affairs and Chair of the Māori Purposes Fund Board in 1949. It also contains four sub-books entitled: ‘Book 1: The Coming of the Māori’; ‘Book II: Material Culture’; ‘Book III: Social Organisation’; and ‘Book IV: Religion’. In conclusion Te Rangi Hiroa provides an epilogue, a list of literature cited and an index.
  • "Foreword". The Ngarimu hui. By I. L. G. Sutherland. Polynesian Society Memoir 28 Wellington, N.Z. 1949.
  • Report of the Director For 1948. B. P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 197. Honolulu, Hawaii: The Museum, 1949.
  • (With an article "Old Polynesian Curios.")
  • Material Culture of Kapingamarangi. Honolulu, Hawaii: The Museum, 1950. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 200.
  • A highly detailed comprehensive account of the material culture of Kapingamarangi drawn from research conducted during a Bishop Museum Expedition to Kapingamarangi. The expedition was part of the Coordinated Investigation of Micronesian Anthropology organised by the National Research Council’s Pacific Science Board. The purpose of the expedition was to provide research on the indigenous people of Micronesia to assist the civil administration of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. The Kapingamarangi expedition took place in July 1947. Hiroa states that in this study he set out "to record in detail the various technical processes still functioning in Kapingamarangi, and some of the abandoned ones, such as the manufacture of bark cloth from breadfruit bast." The broad subject areas which Hiroa discusses in many subsections are food, houses, plaiting, cordage, lashings, clothing, tools, canoes, fishing, games and recreation, ornaments and personal decoration, weapons, and acculturation in material culture. His writing is accompanied by some 150 line drawings.
  • "The Bernice P. Bishop Museum." Pacific, Ocean of Islands. C. L. Barrett. Melbourne: N. H. Seward Pty Ltd, 1950. 95-104.
  • Report of the Director For 1949. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 199. Honolulu, Hawaii: The Museum, 1950.
  • Buck reports on the Seventh Pacific Science Congress held in New Zealand in February 1949; this, he asserts, was "the outstanding scientific event of 1949". He lists the lectures he gave while in New Zealand and the various awards and titles conferred on him during the year of his retirement as Professor of Anthropology at Yale University. Buck includes the annual research reports in the areas of Anthropology, Botany, Zoology, Geology and Geography, the 1949 publications and reports from the library and Office of Curator of Collections. Buck concludes with his article "An Anthropological Tour in New Zealand" (26-32), a report of his field trip through New Zealand during the Seventh Pacific Science Congress. He also relays a discussion of Māori welcoming customs at the various marae visited at Ngaruawahia, Horohoro, Tamatekapua at Ohinemutu, Rotorua, and Ruatoki.
  • "Bishop Museum - Yale’s Partner in the Pacific." Yale Alumni Magazine 14.7 (1951): 5-7.
  • "The Hawaiians, An Ancient Culture Still Lives in the Hula, the Oli Chant, the Luau Feast and a Proud People." American Heritage 2.3 (1951): 26-29, 76-77.
  • "He Poroporoaki - A Farewell Message (Personal Reminiscences of Sir Apirana Ngata)." Journal of the Polynesian Society 60 (1951): 22-31.
  • "Kapingamarangi: A Living Legend." Paradise of the Pacific 63 (1951): 22-27, 36-37.
  • "My Three Years at Te Aute College." Story of Te Aute College. R. R. Alexander. Wellington, N.Z.: A. H. & A. W. Reed, 1951. 15-18.
  • Hiroa writes a personal account of his education at Te Aute College which began in 1896 when he was sixteen. He describes his sporting activities and academic progress and notes the contribution of teacher Mr Baker in urging him toward medicine. Hiroa states that his three years at Te Aute "laid the foundation which made it possible for [him] to enter the medical profession and to commence a career in science."
  • "Tributes to and Speeches Made During Visit to N.Z. in 1949." Journal of the Polynesian Society 60 (1951): 223-254.
  • Report of the Director For 1950. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 205. Honolulu, Hawaii: The Museum, 1951.
  • Buck writes of the Museum activities during 1950 and discusses his own research in the area of Hawaiian arts and crafts. The annual reports of staff working in Anthropology, Botany, Zoology and Geology, are included along with Museum publications, reports from the Library and the office of the Curator of Collections. Buck provides an article entitled "Bishop Museum and Entomological Research" (26-35) in which he gives a detailed chronological report of the Museum’s role in entomological research, noting the various surveys beginning with R. C. L. Perkins’ study in the Hawaiian Islands between 1892-1913.
  • "Comment of The Sacred Calabash by H. Rodman." (Journal of the Polynesian Society 37 (1928): 75-87) Pacific Islands Monthly 22.7 (1952): 113.
  • Explorers of the Pacific: European and American Discoveries in Polynesia. Honolulu, Hawaii: Bernice P. Bishop Museum Special Publication 43 , 1953.
  • This is a posthumous publication based on Buck’s earlier monograph An Introduction to Polynesian Anthropology. Alexander Spoehr writes in his foreword that it was Buck’s initial intention "to write a section on the European explorers of the Pacific for his annual report as director of the Bishop Museum, but he became so interested in the early voyagers and their reports on the people of the islands that he produced a book instead." Buck gives a detailed chronological account of the various waves of explorers and navigators beginning with the late fifteenth-century Portuguese navigators Bartholomeo Diaz and Vasco da Gama. He describes the early Dutch voyages of the late sixteenth to eighteenth centuries, the British explorers from 1740-1780, the British navigators from 1780-1800, the French explorers of the 18th century, the Spanish and American voyages of the 18th century, the Russian voyages from 1803-1826, the French voyages of the 19th century, the British voyages of 1800-1850 and the American voyages from 1800-1842.
  • "Ko Te Ao Hou/Te Ao Hou - The New World." Te Ao Hou 7 (1954): 14-15. In Māori and English.
  • This message of congratulations on the establishment of Te Ao Hou was sent shortly before Buck’s death. Buck gives a background to the birth of the Young Māori Party and its annual conferences and he writes that the Young Māori Party movement gradually became "frayed and is laid aside" leaving "the new world" for the young.
  • Arts and Crafts of Hawaii. [Honolulu]: Bishop Museum Press, 1957. Rpt. in separate sections by Bishop Museum Press, 1964. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Special Publication 45. Rpt. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 2003.
  • In his foreword Roland W. Force writes that this was Buck’s final scholarly contribution. Originally published in 1957, it was reprinted in 1964 in fourteen separate booklets containing each of the major sections of the original text. Titles include: Food, Houses, Plaiting, Twined Baskets, Clothing, Canoes, Fishing, Games and Recreation, Musical Instruments, War and Weapons, Religion, Ornaments, Death and Burial, and Index.
  • "Material Representatives of Tongan and Samoan Gods." Journal of the Polynesian Society 44.175 (1935): 153-162. Rpt as "Material Representatives of Tongan and Samoan Gods and Additional Wooden Imagery from Tonga." Many Faces of Primitive Art: A Critical Anthology. Ed. Dr Fraser. New York: Prentice-Hall (1966): 100-128.
  • In this last section of Hiroa’s paper, he provides illustrations and descriptions of images of gods from central Polynesia (such as the Society Islands, the Cook and Austral groups) as a comparison to the Tongan and Samoan images.
  • "Lit Fire: A Modern Explanation by Te Rangi Hiroa." Excerpt from The Coming of The Māori. 380-382. Rpt. in Māori Is My Name: Historical Māori Writings in Translation. Ed. John Caselberg. Dunedin, N.Z.: John McIndoe, 1975. 19-20.
  • Mangaia and the Mission. Ed. Rod Dixon and Teaea Parima. Suva: IPS, USP; B. P. Bishop Museum, 1993.
  • In their introduction, Rod Dixon and Teaea Parima discuss Buck’s Mangaian Society published in 1934. They note that "64 pages [pages 641-705] of Buck’s original typescript were excluded from Mangaian Society. These pages included a draft history of Mangaia from the ‘advent of Christianity’ in 1823 to the annexation of the Cook Islands by New Zealand in 1901." Buck stated in a letter to Sir Apirana Ngata that he "made a special period of the Missionary era from 1823 to 1888 and attempted an analysis of the manner in which Christianity affected the native culture." Dixon and Parima state that his notes were "published in a considerably condensed form in 1939 under the heading ‘The Death of the Gods’, the final chapter of his Anthropology and Religion." The text is reproduced in this publication with added footnotes and notes by Dixon and Parima.
  • Other

  • "Chant of Kahu-Koka." Vikings of the Sunrise. New York: Frederick A. Stokes, 1938. 62-63. Rpt. in Stroven, C. and Day, A. G. "Polynesian Sea Chants." The Spell of the Pacific. New York: MacMillan, 1949. 88-89.
  • Kahu-koka appeals to Tawhiri-matea for assistance in their return sailing to Hawaiki. In introducing this English translation of a Māori sea poem Buck writes "[t]he early Polynesians had acquired from their ocean environment a practical knowledge of prevailing winds and their seasons.... In the chant of the voyager Kahu-koka, the god [Tawhiri-matea] was invoked to close his eye that looked to the south so that a safe voyage might be made from west to east." (Ref. from The Spell of the Pacific. C. Stroven and A. G. Day. New York: MacMillan, 1949. 87).
  • "Polynesian Deep-Sea Chantey." Vikings of the Sunrise. New York: Frederick A. Stokes, 1938. 40. Rpt. in Stroven, C. and Day, A. G. "Polynesian Sea Chants." The Spell of the Pacific. New York: MacMillan, 1949. 88.
  • In this English translation, the speaker tells of his steering paddle Kautu-ki-te-rangi guiding the speaker on his journeying across the ocean to the ever receding horizon to the unknown.
  • "Wairangi/Wairangi." Comp. and trans. Te Rangihiroa from Hitiri Te Paerata and others. Te Ao Hou 2 (1952): 18-22.
  • This Māori text with English translation by Te Rangihiroa describes Wairangi’s quest to seek the return of his wife Parewhete who fled to Tupeteka at Te Aea.
  • Na To Hoa Aroha: From Your Dear Friend: The correspondence between Sir Apirana Ngata and Sir Peter Buck, 1920-50. Volume One. Introduction and notes by M. P. K. Sorrenson. [Auckland, N.Z.]: Auckland UP in association with the Alexander Turnbull Library Endowment Trust and the Māori Purposes Fund Board, 1986.
  • Includes an introduction by Sorrenson and letters dated 20 October 1925 to 9 November 1929. Sorrenson notes that from 1925-1950 Ngata and Buck wrote almost 200 letters to each other. In these three volumes Sorrenson has reproduced 174 of these letters.
  • Na To Hoa Aroha: From Your Dear Friend: The correspondence between Sir Apirana Ngata and Sir Peter Buck, 1920-50. Volume Two. Notes by M. P. K. Sorrenson. [Auckland, N.Z.]: Auckland UP in association with the Alexander Turnbull Library Endowment Trust and the Māori Purposes Fund Board, 1986.
  • Contains letters from 4 May 1930 to 12 August 1932.
  • Na To Hoa Aroha: From Your Dear Friend: The correspondence between Sir Apirana Ngata and Sir Peter Buck, 1920-50. Volume Three. Introduction and notes by M. P. K. Sorrenson. [Auckland, N.Z.]: Auckland UP in association with the Alexander Turnbull Library Endowment Trust and the Māori Purposes Fund Board, 1986.
  • Letters dated from 15 August 1932 to 5 March 1950 with an epilogue and index to the three volumes.
  • Papers/Presentations

  • Speech in Parliament After the Death of Hone Heke M.P. of Northern Māori. New Zealand Parliamentary Debates Vol. 146 (1909): 7-10. Rpt. in Māori Is My Name: Historical Writings in Translation. Ed. John Caselberg. Dunedin, N.Z.: John McIndoe, 1975. 144-146.
  • Reviews

  • Rev. of The Racial History of Man, by R. B. Dixon. Journal of the Polynesian Society 32 (1923): 248-249.
  • Rev. of The Māori Mantle, by H. Ling Roth. Journal of the Polynesian Society 33 (1924): 69-77.
  • Rev. of The Moriori of Chatham Islands, by H. D. Skinner. Journal of the Polynesian Society 33 (1924): 66-69.

    Other

  • Awatere, Arapeta. "A Haka to Honour Te Rangihiroa." Te Ao Hou 9 (1954): 15-16.
  • Boyes, V. "Critically Assess the Contribution of Sir Maui Pomare and Sir Peter Buck to Māori Health." University of Auckland Historical Society Annual 1978: 1-6.
  • Condliffe, J.B. Te Rangi Hiroa. Christchurch, N.Z.: Whitcombe & Tombs, 1971.
  • Jones, P. "Funeral Oration." Te Ao Hou 9 (1954): 41-43.
  • Jones gave this oration at Okoki Pa before the service of internment of Sir Peter Buck’s ashes and the unveiling of the memorial to Buck on 8 August, 1954.
  • "Memorial to the Late Sir Peter Buck." Te Ao Hou 8 (1954): 30-31.
  • Roydhouse, G.S. "Te Rangihiroa’s Rich Life, Rich Distinctions, Rich Legacy." Te Ao Hou 1 (1952): 3-8.
  • "Te Rangi Hiroa Now Rests in His Homeland." Te Ao Hou 5 (1953): 9.
  • "Te Rangi Hiroa: His Burial Marks the End of an Epoch." Te Ao Hou 9 (1954): 34-40, 43.
  • Condliffe, J. B. "Bibliography." Te Rangi Hiroa. Christchurch, N.Z.: Whitcombe & Tombs, Ltd., 1971. 301-308.
  • Taylor, C. R. H. A Bibliography of Publications on the New Zealand Māori and the Moriori of the Chatham Islands. Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, Oxford UP, 1972. 11, 31, 78, 91, 108, 111, 114, 118.
  • Thomson, John. "Nonfiction Prose." New Zealand Literature to 1977: A Guide to Information Sources. Vol. 30 in the American Literature, English Literature, and World Literatures in English Information Guide Series, Detroit: Gale Research Company, 1980. 233.
  • Williams, John Adrian. "Bibliography." Māori Society and Politics 1891-1909. Diss. U of Wisconsin, 1963. 217.
  • Reviews

    An Introduction to Polynesian Anthropology
  • C. R. H. T. "Book Notices." Journal of the Polynesian Society 56 (1947): 120-121.
  • Anthropology and Religion
  • J. C. A. Journal of the Polynesian Society 48 (1939): 193-197.
  • Arts and Crafts of Hawaii
  • Barrow, T.T. Journal of the Polynesian Society 69 (1960): 298-301.
  • An Introduction to Polynesian Anthropology
  • Arts and Crafts of the Cook Islands
  • Arts and Crafts of the Cook Islands
  • Duff, Roger S. Journal of the Polynesian Society 55 (1946): 124-140.
  • Ethnology of Tongareva
  • J. C. A. Journal of the Polynesian Society 41 (1932): 163-165.
  • Mangaian Society
  • J. C. A. Journal of the Polynesian Society 43.171 (1934): 216-220.
  • Native Races Need Not Die
  • J. C. A. Journal of the Polynesian Society 49 (1940): 470-471.
  • Samoan Material Culture
  • Editor. Journal of the Polynesian Society 40 (1931): 50-52.
  • The Coming of the Māori
  • Skinner, H. D. Journal of the Polynesian Society 34 (1925): 379-380.
  • The material Culture of the Cook Islands (Aitutaki)
  • Editors. Journal of the Polynesian Society 38 (1929): 176-178.
  • Vikings of the Sunrise.
  • Bennett, C. M. "Vikings of the Sunrise." Te Ao Hou 10 (1955): 48.
  • J. C. A. Journal of the Polynesian Society 47 (1938): 189-193.