Irihapeti Ramsden was brought up in Wellington by her Pakeha father as well as by the people of her mother, Ngāti Irakehu of Horomaka. She attended Te Aro School in Wellington and won the Ngarimu Fund Board Essay Competition for essays in English in the Forms 1 and 2 section. She graduated with a degree in anthropology from Victoria University and worked as a public health nurse in Porirua and taught nursing at Whitireia Polytech. In 1988 she began working under secondment for the Education Department and became a member of the Nursing Council’s education committee. Irihapeti was a nursing eduationalist and curriculum designer; her experience in nursing led her to investigate the reasons for the poor health service delivered to Māori. Training in anthropology and education enabled her to develop a process which challenged the education of health profesionals turning the focus on the service rather than the consumers. This educational process, named "Cultural Safety by Māori" caused considerable controversy in 1993. It has been adopted by most nursing schools in Aotearoa.
Irihapeti was a member of Haeata Māori Women’s Collective and of the Spiral Collective which published the bone people in 1984. She worked as a critic and writer and in 1988 and 1989 was one of the judges for the Goodman Fielder Wattie Book Award. She served as a Council Member of Lincoln University, was a member of the Health Sponsorship Council, the Māori Committee and the Ethics Committee of the Health Research Council, was a Fellow of the College of Nurses of Aotearoa, and a member of the New Zealand Council for Educational Research. She was a Council Member of the New Zealand College of Midwives, a Convenor of Te Puawai Tapu, a member of Te Hotu Manawa Māori, National Heart Foundation, a member of the management committee of Nga Kaiwhakamarama I Nga Ture, and had memberships on the Asthma Foundation Executive, Māori Women’s Welfare League and whanau land Trust.
Running workshops on treaty issues and decolonisation were a particular focus of Irihapeti Ramsden’s work. Her interests lay in the urban experience of Māori people and the development of identity and confidence toward the achievement of sovereignty for Māori. She was a contributing editor for the five volume Te Ao Mārama series of contemporary Māori Writing which were published in the 1990s.
- Correspondence from Irihapeti Ramsden 12 Dec. 1992 and 18 Aug. 1998.
- Te Ao Hou 27 (1959)
- Te Ao Mārama: Regaining Aotearoa: Māori Writers Speak Out. Comp. and ed. Witi Ihimaera. Contributing ed. Haare Williams, Irihapeti Ramsden and D. S. Long. Vol. 2: He Whakaatanga O Te Ao: The Reality. Auckland, N.Z.: Reed, 1993. 320.
- Mana Tiriti
- Toi Wahine – the Worlds of Māori Women
- "A Model for Negotiated and Equal Partnership." Unpublished paper, n.d. Available at the Ministry of Education. (Ref. Māori Women: An Annotated Bibliography. 26).
- Co-authored with M. Gray.
- "Te Mana Wahine." Wahine Toa: Women of Māori Myth. Ed. Robyn Kahukiwa and Patricia Grace. New Zealand Listener, June 1984.
- Co-authored with M. Evans.
- "Biography of Erena Raukura Gillies." Herstory Diary. Auckland, N.Z.: New Zealand Women’s Press, 1985.
- "Editorial." New Zealand Nursing Journal "Our Culture is our health." July 1985.
- "He Huarahi Ki Whakangawari." Future Times: Journal of the New Zealand Futures Trust Summer (1986/87): 6.
- This text of Ramsden’s address to the Future Trust Board’s 1986 annual meeting is serialised over three issues of Future Times. In this first part Ramsden speaks of the Māori word ‘mua’ with its meaning encompassing both past and future and she discusses the implications of this concept in Māoridom.
- "He Huarahi Ki Whakangawari." Journal of the New Zealand Futures Trust: (summer, winter, autumn editions, 1980-1987).
- It was a model for changing institutions based on the treaty of Waitangi.
- "MāORI: Slow Destruction Over 200 Years." Future Times: Journal of the New Zealand Futures Trust Autumn (1987): 5.
- In this second part of Ramsden’s address to the Future Trust Board in 1986, she assesses the impact of European settlement and colonisation on the Māori and lists the statistics which highlight the physical and mental ill-health and the huge land loss suffered by Māori.
- "MāORI: The Future Need Not Be Bleak." Future Times: Journal of the New Zealand Futures Trust Winter (1987): 16.
- In this final section of Ramsden’s’ address to the Future Trust Board in 1986, she continues with her overview of the current position of Māoridom by examining some of the negative effects of colonisation. She briefly touches on the high percentage of Māori prison inmates and small percentage of Māori at university. In conclusion she asserts that ‘if the process of deculturalisation continues with the continual erosion of confidence and health of Māori people, then the future for our children is bleak indeed, for they are deculturalised in both cultures.’ Ramsden advocates, instead, a basic shift in position of the power brokers of society, the Pakeha, with the ‘deliberate development of a bicultural Aotearoa’ where two cultural foundations are recognised.
- Introduction. Kawa Whakaruruhau: Cultural Safety in Nursing Education in Aotearoa. The Hui Waimanawa, Otautahi - 1988, Hui Piri Ki Nga Tangaroa, Manawatu - 1989, Hui Raranga Patai, Te Whanganui A Tara - 1990. Prepared by the Education Officer, Māori Health & Nursing, Ministry of Education 1988-1990. Cover design Craig Lambert. [Wellington, N.Z.: I. M. Ramsden, 1990]: 1-6. Rpt. 1991.
- Ramsden writes that ‘[t]his report comes at the end of a long and complex historical process which has included the replacement of the holistic Polynesian model of health with the reductionist one which the Nightingale nurses brought from England.’
- Kawa Whakaruruhau: Cultural Safety in Nursing Education in Aotearoa. The Hui Waimanawa, Otautahi - 1988, Hui Piri Ki Nga Tangaroa, Manawatu - 1989, Hui Raranga Patai, Te Whanganui A Tara - 1990. Prepared by the Education Officer, Māori Health & Nursing, Ministry of Education 1988-1990. Cover design Craig Lambert. [Wellington, N.Z.: I. M. Ramsden, 1990]. Rpt. 1991.
- A comprehensive report of eleven chapters compiled by a core group of Māori nurses who attended the Hui Piri Ki Nga Tangaroa in January 1990 with the aim of providing guidelines for cultural safety. Their underlying statement is that ‘[a]s long as Māori people feel unable to avail ourselves of health service delivery because we define it as, unaffordable, inaccessible and inappropriate, the service will remain culturally unsafe to Māori people.’ The report provides various recommendations on how institutions can be culturally safe through the institution of Komiti Kawa Whakaruruhau monitoring the Māori component, by ensuring the recognition of tino rangātiratanga as espoused by the Treaty, by promoting attitudinal change and by examining issues of curriculum, assessment, budgeting, and recommendations to the Nursing Council. There are three appendices which include student recommendations from the Workshop on Treaty of Waitangi, an extract from Hauora Māori Standards of Health, and a Model for Negotiated and Equal Partnership. There is also an introduction by Irihapeti Ramsden.
- "Equalizing the Parnership." New Zealand Nursing Journal (Apr. 1989). No further details.
- About the Treaty.
- "He Aha Te Mea Nui o Te Ao?" Nursing Praxis in New Zealand 5.2 (Mar. 1990): 3-5.
- In this paper presented at the Healthy Cities Seminar in Otautahi/Christchurch on October 26, 1989, Ramsden discusses the importance of wairua and mana in the Māori view of health and outlines the effects of colonisation and urbanisation on Māori health.
- "Piri Ki Nga Tangaroa: In Anticipation Of Better Days: The Māori Health Reality: The Public Health People." New Zealand Nursing Journal 83.1 (Feb 1990): 16-18. Rpt. in Commonwealth and International Conference on Physical Education, Sport 5 (1990): 111-126.
- An extensive essay which provides an overview of the historical and contemporary issues impacting the current state and reality of Māori health.
- "Moving To Better Health." New Zealand Nursing Journal 83.2 (1990): 15-17.
- "History, Warts And All, Will Guide NZ To Harmony." The Press 27 June 1990. No further details.
- "Cultural Safety." New Zealand Nursing Journal 83.11 (Dec. & Jan. 1990/91): 18-19.
- The Māori Health Reality: The Public Health People. Wellington, N.Z.: New Zealand Association of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 1990.
- "Outlining Māori concepts." Dominion 13 Apr. 1991: 9.
- Overview. Mana Tiriti: The Art of Protest and Partnership. Wellington, N.Z.: Haeata Māori Women’s Art Collective; Project Waitangi; Wellington City Art Gallery; Daphne Brasell, 1991. 9-10.
- Irihapeti provides a background to the 1990 Mana Tiriti exhibition and the booklet which was published in the following year. She notes that the book ‘does not try to be a complete study of the Treaty’ but is instead, a collection of personal statements about the Treaty by Māori and Pakeha. Irihapeti asserts that one of the most successful features of the exhibition was the degree of co-operation that occurred between Māori and Pakeha in its production and that this became ‘a model of partnership’. She also contends that the exhibition gave Pakeha an opportunity to begin to understand the Māori perception of history and that for Māori, it was an exhibition where ‘for once’ their ‘values and interests were not swamped’.
- "150 Years Of Dirty Laundry." Mana Tiriti: The Art of Protest and Partnership. Wellington, N.Z.: Haeata Māori Women’s Art Collective; Project Waitangi; Wellington City Art Gallery; Daphne Brasell, 1991. 12-13.
- Co-authored with Paparangi Reid.
- "Robyn Kahukiwa and Diane Prince: After Mana Tiriti." Art New Zealand 59 (Winter 1991): 72-75.
- Ramsden gives an overview of the art work of Kahukiwa and Prince and specifically discusses their exhibits in 1990 in the Mana Tiriti exhibition and their exhibition at the Page 90 Gallery in Porirua.
- "Outlining Māori Concepts." Dominion 13 Apr. 1991: 9.
- "Erena Raukura Gillies: Taua Fan." The Book of New Zealand Women - Ko Kui Ma Te Kaupapa. Ed.. Charlotte Macdonald, Merimeri Penfold and Bridget Williams. Wellington, N.Z.: Bridget Williams, 1991: 238-241.
- Raukura, the youngest daughter of Hoani Taare Tikao and Matahana Toko Solomon, was raised in a politically active household where her father ‘devoted his life to the pursuit of justice for his disenfranchised people.’ During the influenza epidemic in 1918 Raukura was called upon in Rapaki to supervise setting up a ward in the meeting house and nursing the patients. Raukura later became a midwife to her whanau. In 1920 a marriage was arranged between Raukura and Robert Gillies of Ngāti Kahungunu in order to maintain alliances between Ngāti Kahungunu and Ngāi Tahupotiki.
- "Airini Grennell." The Book of New Zealand Women - Ko Kui Ma Te Kaupapa. Ed.. Charlotte Macdonald, Merimeri Penfold and Bridget Williams. Wellington, N.Z.: Bridget Williams, 1991. 256-257.
- Co-authored with Cushla Parekowhai.
- "Robyn Kahukiwa and Diane Prince after Mana Tiriti." Art New Zealand 59 (1991): 72-75.
- "A Personal View of the Missionary Experience." Honest To Goodness: Celebrating Twenty Five Years of the Humanist Society of New Zealand. Wellington, N.Z.: Humanist Society of New Zealand, 1992. No further details.
- "One Māori View of History." Introductory Writing for Voices, Putahitanga. Ed. Cheryl Cameron. Welington, N.Z.: Te Papatongarewa, The Museum of New Zealand. December, 1992.
- "Asthma in Māori People." The New Zealand Medical Journal, 1992. No details.
- Co-authored with M. Hight, V. Ormsby, N. Pearce, E. Pomare, and H. Tutengaehe.
- "Teaching Cultural Safety." New Zealand Nursing Journal 85.5 (June 1992) 21-23.
- "Kawa Whakaruruhau: Cultural Safety in Nursing Education in Aotearoa (New Zealand)." The Public Service: Delivering Good Services To The Public? A Joint Seminar By the NZIPA And The International Ombudsman Institute. New Zealand Institute Of Public Administration Research Papers Vol. 10, No. 3, 1993. [?]: New Zealand Institute of Public Administration, 1993. 25-30. Rpt. in Nursing Praxis in New Zealand 8.3 (Nov. 1993): 4-10.
- Ramsden provides a background to the issues surrounding cultural safety in nursing.
- "He Huarahi Tawhito: An Old Path." New Zealand Nursing Journal 86.1 (Feb. 1993): 24.
- This was about the first Māori registered nurse.
- "The Cultural Safety Debate In Nursing Education In Aotearoa." New Zealand Annual Review of Education 3 (1993): 161-174.
- Co-authored with Paul Spoonley.
- "Erena Raukura Gillies Taua Fan 1896-1989." Te Māori News 2.4 (18 Mar. 1993): 8.
- "Changing The State Examination." New Zealand Nursing Journal 86.2 (Mar. 1993): 30.
- Co-authored with Jeanette Page.
- "Irihapeti Ramsden." What I Believe: The Personal Philosophies of Twenty-Two New Zealanders. Comp. Allan Thomson. Wellington, N.Z.: GP, 1993. 164-178.
- "Guidelines for Cultural Safety." Liberating Learning: Women as Facilitators of Learning: Ed. J. Manchester, A. O’Rouke, and I. Ramsden. Wellington, N.Z.: J. Manchester and A. O’Rourke, 1993. No further details.
- "Borders and Frontiers." Te Ao Mārama: Regaining Aotearoa: Māori Writers Speak Out. Comp. and ed. Witi Ihimaera. Contributing ed. Haare Williams, Irihapeti Ramsden and D. S. Long. Vol. 2: He Whakaatanga O Te Ao: The Reality. Auckland, N.Z.: Reed, 1993. 344-351. Rpt. in The Writing of New Zealand: Inventions and Identities. Ed. Alex Calder. Auckland, N.Z.: Reed, 1993. 236-244.
- Drawing on her own childhood experiences growing up in the urban home of Māori and Pakeha parents, Ramsden explores the impact of post-colonial society on urban Māori and examines questions of Māori identity that are not appearance-based, economics-based or confined to the stereotypical versions of Māoriness. Ramsden contends that ‘Māoritanga is located within every Māori regardless of appearance or the story which has brought them to this part of their life and this expression of Māoriness.’
- Foreword. Nga Wahine Me Te Kai Paipa: Māori Women and Smoking. He Rangahau Hauora: A Māori Health Research Project. Na John Broughton raua ki Mark Lawrence [By John Broughton and Mark Lawrence]. Dunedin, N.Z.: Dept. of Preventive and Social Medicine, U of Otago, 1993. 9.
- Ramsden reinforces the value of this project being conducted ‘by Māori among Māori’, using expert research methodology and providing hard data on which future health strategies can be built.
- "Iri Ki Nga Tangaroa: In Anticipitation Of Better Days." Pacific Health Dialog 1.1 (Mar. 1994): 39-43.
- "Cultural Safety." Mental Health News (Summer 1994): 23.
- "A Challenge To Education." Social Policy Journal of New Zealand/ Te Puna Whakaaro 3 (Dec. 1994): 18-25.
- "He Poroporoaki." Mana Wahine: Women Who Show The Way. Ed. Amy Brown. Photographs by Jocelyn Carlin. Auckland, N.Z.: Reed, 1994. 202-206.
- "Cultural Safety: Implementing The Concept." Journal (New Zealand College of Midwives) 13 (Oct. 1995): 6-9.
- Text of paper presented at the Social Force of Nursing Conference, Wellington, 23 May 1995.
- Toi Wahine: The Worlds of Māori Women. Illus. Robyn Kahukiwa. Ed. Kathie Irwin and Irihapeti Ramsden. Auckland, N.Z.: Penguin, 1995.
- Irwin writes that this publication ‘explores the dreams, lives, thoughts, experiences and reflections of Māori women, as well as the concerns and issues facing us.’ Robyn Kahukiwa initiated the project when she began to invite Māori women to contribute thoughts and writings to accompany her paintings. In this collection seventeen Māori women provide written work including fiction, non-fiction, poetry, haka, poi and speeches and Robyn Kahukiwa presents twelve pencil drawings.
- "Cultural Safety Experience ‘Inevitable’." Kia Hiwa Ra: National Māori Newspaper 45 (Sept. 1996): 459.
- "Cultural Safety In Nursing Education: The New Zealand Experience." International Journal for Quality in Health Care 8.5 (1996): 491-497.
- Co-authored with Elaine Papps.
- "An Existence in History." Growing up Māori. Ed. Witi Ihimaera. Auckland, N.Z.: Tandem, 1998: 286-294.
- "Cultural Safety/ Kawa Whakaruruhau Ten Years On: A Personal Overview." Nursing Praxis in New Zealand 15.1 (Mar. 2000): 4-12.
- "Iwikau & Tikao." Te Karaka: The Ngai Tahu Magazine 14 (Win. 2000): 10-12.
- "Improving Practice Through Research." Kai TiakiL Nursing New Zealand 7.1 (Feb. 2001): 23-26.
- Submission made to the Public Health Nursing Review Committee. Dept. of Health, 1985.
- "A Model for Negotiated and Equal Partnership." Dept. of Education, 1989.
- "Debates - Rediscovering our Ancestors: Not A Polynesian Problem?" IV Fira International Del Llibre Feminista. Barcelona, Sp.: 1990. No details.
- Published in a subsequent book in Spanish.
- "Guidelines for Nursing and Midwifery Education." Commissioned by the Nursing Council of New Zealand. Feb. 1992.
- "Cultural Safety in Nursing Education in Aoteroa." A New Zealand Teaching Council? A National Forum. Wellington, N.Z. Nov. 1993.
- Conference paper.
- Evans, M. and I. Ramsden. "Te Mana Wahine." Rev. of Wahine Toa: Women of Māori Myth, by Patricia Grace and Robyn Kahukiwa. Listener 30 Jun. 1984: 68.
- "Haste Mars Publication On Treaty." Rev. Of Healing The Breach: One Maori’s Perspective On The Treaty Of Waitangi, by Hiwi Tauroa. Dominion 18 Nov. 1989: 11.
- "How To Run Meetings And Marae Gatherings." Rev. of Effective Meetings, by Lora Mountjoy, and Te Kawa o Te Marae, by Hiwi Tauroa. Dominion 27 Jan. 1990: 9.
- "BOOKS: Personal Journeys." Rev. of 1840-1990 A Long White Cloud? Essays for 1990. Ed. Tom Newnham. Listener 5 Feb. 1990: 108.
- "BOOKS AND BOOK REVIEWS." Rev. of Te Maiharoa and The Promised Land, by Buddy Mikaere. Archifacts: Bulletin of the Archives and Records Association of New Zealand (Apr. 1990): 72-74.
- "A Taonga For All In Aotearoa." Rev. of Tikao Talks, told by Teone Taare Tikao to Herries Beattie. Dominion 24 Nov. 1990: 7.
- "Outlining Māori Concepts." Rev. of Tikanga Whakaaro, by Cleve Barlow. Dominion 13 Apr. 1991: 9.
- "Southern Life." Rev. of Traditional lifeways of the Southern Māori, by James Herries Beattie. Listener 9 Apr. 1994: 53.
- "Cultural Safety and Nursing Education in Aotearoa and Te Waipounamu." 2003. No further details.
- "Whakamamae." Whakamamae (Exhibition). Shona Rapira Davies and Robyn Kahukiwa. Wellington, N.Z.: Wellington City Art Gallery, 1988. Rpt. in Passion: Discourses on Black Women’s Creativity. London, UK: Urban Fox Press, 1988. No further details. Rpt. in Te Ao Mārama: Regaining Aotearoa: Māori Writers Speak Out. Comp. and ed. Witi Ihimaera. Contributing ed. Haare Williams, Irihapeti Ramsden and D. S. Long. Vol. 2: He Whakaatanga O Te Ao: The Reality. Auckland, N.Z.: Reed, 1993. 320-322.
- Cover essay, commissioned by Wellington City Art Gallery for an exhibition of painting and sculpture by Māori artists Bobyn Kahukiwa and Shona Rapira Davies. Ramsden describes the underlying spirituality both artists sensed in their work on the exhibits and their need to create a wharewhakairo within the gallery.
- McCallum, Glenda. "Enrolled Nurses Convention: 1990." New Zealand Nursing Journal 83.3 (Apr. 1990): 12-15.
- Catherall, Sarah. "The Treaty At The Bedside." Dominion 14 Aug. 1993. 10.
- Catherall, Sarah. "Nurses’ Use of Cultural Safety Not Gauged." Sunday Times 15 Aug. 1993: 3.
- Brett, Cate. "Putting Penn to Paper: The Whole Story About Christchurch Polytech and Cultural Safety." North and South (Oct. 1993): 66-77.
- "Māori Issues All-Important." Dominion 6 Aug. 1993: 8.
- Dekker, Diana. "A Course For Caring." Evening Post 13 July 1994: 25+.
- Cooney, Catherine. "A Comparative Analysis of Transcultural Nursing and Cultural Safety." Nursing Praxis in New Zealand 9.1 (Mar. 1994): 6-12.
- "Co-ordinator Speaks On Cultural Safety." Press 22 Aug. 1994: 4.
- "Dispelling the Myths of Cultural Safety." Kia Hiwa Ra: National Māori Newspaper (May 1995): 305.
- "Irihapeti Ramsden: Something For My Grandchildren To Hold." Broadsheet 212 (Summer 1996): 58.
- "Dinner Celebrates Māori Women’s Achievements." Kokiri Paetae 6 (Jan. 1997): 61+.
- "Three Nurses Nominated To Workforce Committee." Kai Tiaki: Nursing New Zealand 6.6 (July 2000): 10.
- "Understanding Cultural Safety." Kai Tiaki: Nursing New Zealand 6.10 (Nov. 2000): 7.
- Thompson, Sue. "Developing A Cultural Safety Curriculum." Kai Tiaki: Nursing New Zealand 7.1 (Feb. 2001: 14-15.
- "Safe Haven: Our First Nurse: Ahipara, Freeman’s Bay – and DNA." Mana: The Māori News Magazine for All New Zealanders 48 (Oct./Nov. 2002): 41-51.
- Manchester, Anne. "Challenging And Changing The Culture Of Nursing." Kai Tiaki: Nursing New Zealand 8.1 (Feb. 2002): 20-21.
- "NZNO Conference 2002." Kai Tiaki Nursing New Zealand 8.9 (Oct. 2002): 10-17.
- Pitama, Riki Te Mairaki. "Poroporoaki." Te Karaka: The Ngai Tahu Magazine 22 (Spr. 2003): 2.
- Kitchin, Peter. "Architect of Cultural Safety." Dominion Post 10 Apr. 2003: B7.
- Lambert, Sharon. "Obituary." New Zealand Nursing Review 4.1 (May 2003): 7.
- "He Maimai Aroha." Mana: The Māori News Magazine for All New Zealanders 51 (Apr./May 2003): 8-13.
- Manchester, Anne (and others). "Mourning The Passing Of A Great Nursing Leader: Remembering Irihapeti Ramsden." Kai Tiaki: Nursing New Zealand 9.4 (May 2003): 12-16.
- Kitchin, Peter. "Farewell To Some Capital Folk." Dominion Post 1 Jan. 2004: B3.
- Erai, Michelle, Fuli, Everdina, Irwin, Kathie and Wilcox, Lenaire. Māori Women: An Annotated Bibliography. [Wellington, N.Z.]: Michelle Erai, Everdina Fuli, Kathie Irwin and Lenaire Wilcox, 1991. 26.
Kawa Whakaruruhau: Cultural Safety In Nursing Education
- Bickley, Joy. "‘Cultural Safety’ A New Factor For Nursing." New Zealand Nursing Journal 83.8 (1990): 22.
- Du Chateau, Carroll. "Culture Shock." Metro (Auckland) 132 (June 1992): 96-106.
- Coley, Hugh. "Treaty Art." Rev. of Mana Tiriti, exhibition at Wellington City Art Gallery. Listener 20 Aug. 1990: 105.
The Silent Migration: Ngati Poneke Young Māori Club 1937-1948
- McCrystal, John et al. "Books." Rev. of The Logans: New Zealand’s Greatest Boatbuilding Family, by Robin Elliott and Harold Kidd. Rev. of Taste of the Earth, by Keith Stewart and Kevin Judd. Rev. of The Silent Migratio: Ngati Poneke Young Māori Club 1937-1948 – stories of Urban Migration, by Patricia Grace, Irihapeti Ramsden and Jonathan Dennis. Evening Post 21 Dec. 2001: 11.
- Reid, Nicholas. "Māori Club Tales Funny and Painful." Dominion 29 Dec. 2001: sup.7.
Toi Wahine – the Worlds of Māori Women
- Brown, Amy. "Women’s Work." Listener 25 Nov. 1995. 60.
- Hill, Mei. Broadsheet 208 (Sum. 1995): 58.
- Simpson, Miria. "Our Own Inimitable Way." New Zealand Books 5.4 (Oct. 1995): 7.